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Gridcoin 18.104.22.168-Mandatory "Fern" Release
https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/22.214.171.124 Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that. Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap. We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout. Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.
Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now. Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date. The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.
Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.
The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use. There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all. I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures. The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!
Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.
Network magnitude unit pinned to a static value of 0.25
Max research reward allowed per block raised to 16384 GRC (from 12750 GRC)
New CPIDs begin accruing research rewards from the first superblock that contains the CPID instead of from the time of the beacon advertisement
500 GRC research reward limit for a CPID's first stake
6-month expiration for unclaimed rewards
10-block spacing requirement between research reward claims
Rolling 5-day payment-per-day limit
Legacy tolerances for floating-point error and time drift
The need to include a valid copy of a CPID's magnitude in a claim
10-block emission adjustment interval for the magnitude unit
One-time beacon activation requires that participants temporarily change their usernames to a verification code at one whitelisted BOINC project
Verification codes of pending beacons expire after 3 days
Self-service beacon removal
Burn fee for beacon advertisement increased from 0.00001 GRC to 0.5 GRC
Rain addresses derived from beacon keys instead of a default wallet address
Beacon expiration determined as of the current block instead of the previous block
The ability for developers to remove beacons
The ability to sign research reward claims with non-current but unexpired beacons
As a reminder:
Beacons expire after 6 months pass (180 days)
Beacons can be renewed after 5 months pass (150 days)
Renewed beacons must be signed with the same key as the original beacon
Magnitudes less than 1 include two fractional places
Magnitudes greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 include one fractional place
A valid superblock must match a scraper convergence
Superblock popularity election mechanics
Yes/no/abstain and single-choice response types (no user-facing support yet)
To create a poll, a maximum of 250 UTXOs for a single address must add up to 100000 GRC. These are selected from the largest downwards.
Burn fee for creating polls scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
50 GRC for a poll contract
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Burn fee for casting votes scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
0.01 GRC for a vote contract
0.01 GRC to claim magnitude
0.01 GRC per claimed address
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Maximum length of a poll title: 80 characters
Maximum length of a poll question: 100 characters
Maximum length of a poll discussion website URL: 100 characters
Maximum number of poll choices: 20
Maximum length of a poll choice label: 100 characters
Magnitude, CPID count, and participant count poll weight types
The ability for developers to remove polls and votes
[126.96.36.199] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"
Backport newer uint256 types from Bitcoin #1570 (@cyrossignol)
Implement project level rain for rainbymagnitude #1580 (@jamescowens)
Upgrade utilities (Update checker and snapshot downloadeapplication) #1576 (@iFoggz)
Provide fees collected in the block by the miner #1601 (@iFoggz)
Add support for generating legacy superblocks from scraper stats #1603 (@cyrossignol)
Port of the Bitcoin Logger to Gridcoin #1600 (@jamescowens)
Implement zapwallettxes #1605 (@jamescowens)
Implements a global event filter to suppress help question mark #1609 (@jamescowens)
Add next target difficulty to RPC output #1615 (@cyrossignol)
Add caching for block hashes to CBlock #1624 (@cyrossignol)
Make toolbars and tray icon red for testnet #1637 (@jamescowens)
Add an rpc call convergencereport #1643 (@jamescowens)
Implement newline filter on config file read in #1645 (@jamescowens)
Implement beacon status icon/button #1646 (@jamescowens)
Add gridcointestnet.png #1649 (@caraka)
Add precision to support magnitudes less than 1 #1651 (@cyrossignol)
Replace research accrual calculations with superblock snapshots #1657 (@cyrossignol)
Publish example gridcoinresearch.conf as a md document to the doc directory #1662 (@jamescowens)
Add options checkbox to disable transaction notifications #1666 (@jamescowens)
Add support for self-service beacon deletion #1695 (@cyrossignol)
Add support for type-specific contract fee amounts #1698 (@cyrossignol)
Add verifiedbeaconreport and pendingbeaconreport #1696 (@jamescowens)
Add preliminary testing option for block v11 height on testnet #1706 (@cyrossignol)
Add verified beacons manifest part to superblock validator #1711 (@cyrossignol)
Implement beacon, vote, and superblock display categories/icons in UI transaction model #1717 (@jamescowens)
Taproot! Everybody wants to have it, somebody wants to make it, nobody knows how to get it! (If you are asking why everybody wants it, see: Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?) (Pedants: I mostly elide over lockin times) Briefly, Taproot is that neat new thing that gets us:
Multisignatures (n-of-n, k-of-n) that are just 1 signature (1-of-1) in length!! (MuSig/Schnorr)
Better privacy!! If all contract participants can agree, just use a multisignature. If there is a dispute, show the contract publicly and have the Bitcoin network resolve it (Taproot/MAST).
Activation lets devs work get back to work on the even newer stuff like!!!
Cross-input signature aggregation!! (transaction with multiple inputs can have a single signature for all inputs) --- needs Schnorr, but some more work needed to ensure that the interactions with SCRIPT are okay.
Block validation - Schnorr signatures for all taproot spends in a block can be validated in a single operation instead of for each transaction!! Speed up validation and maybe we can actually afford to increase block sizes (maybe)!!
SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT - you know, for Decker-Russell-Osuntokun ("eltoo") magic!!!
OP_CHECKTEMPLATEVERIFY - vaulty vaults without requiring storing signatures, just transaction details!!
So yes, let's activate taproot!
The SegWit Wars
The biggest problem with activating Taproot is PTSD from the previous softfork, SegWit. Pieter Wuille, one of the authors of the current Taproot proposal, has consistently held the position that he will not discuss activation, and will accept whatever activation process is imposed on Taproot. Other developers have expressed similar opinions. So what happened with SegWit activation that was so traumatic? SegWit used the BIP9 activation method. Let's dive into BIP9!
bit - A field in the block header, the nVersion, has a number of bits. By setting a particular bit, the miner making the block indicates that it has upgraded its software to support a particular soft fork. The bit parameter for a BIP9 activation is which bit in this nVersion is used to indicate that the miner has upgraded software for a particular soft fork.
timeout - a time limit, expressed as an end date. If this timeout is reached without sufficient number of miners signaling that they upgraded, then the activation fails and Bitcoin Core goes back to the drawing board.
Now there are other parameters (name, starttime) but they are not anywhere near as important as the above two. A number that is not a parameter, is 95%. Basically, activation of a BIP9 softfork is considered as actually succeeding if at least 95% of blocks in the last 2 weeks had the specified bit in the nVersion set. If less than 95% had this bit set before the timeout, then the upgrade fails and never goes into the network. This is not a parameter: it is a constant defined by BIP9, and developers using BIP9 activation cannot change this. So, first some simple questions and their answers:
Why not just set a day when everyone starts imposing the new rules of the softfork?
This was done classically (in the days when Satoshi was still among us). But this might argued to put too much power to developers, since there would be no way to reject an upgrade without possible bad consequences. For example, developers might package an upgrade that the users do not want, together with vital security bugfixes. Either you live without vital security bugfixes and hire some other developers to fix it for you (which can be difficult, presumably the best developers are already the ones working on the codebase) or you get the vital security bugfixes and implicitly support the upgrade you might not want.
Sure, you could fork the code yourself (the ultimate threat in the FOSS world) and hire another set of developers who aren't assholes to do the dreary maintenance work of fixing security bugs, but Bitcoin needs strong bug-for-bug compatibility so everyone should really congregate around a single codebase.
Basically: even the devs do not want this power, because they fear being coerced into putting "upgrades" that are detrimental to users. Satoshi got a pass because nobody knew who he was and how to coerce him.
Suppose the threshold were lower, like 51%. If so, after activation, somebody can disrupt the Bitcoin network by creating a transaction that is valid under the pre-softfork rules, but are invalid under the post-softfork rules. Upgraded nodes would reject it, but 49% of miners would accept it and include it in a block (which makes the block invalid) And then the same 49% would accept the invalid block and build on top of that, possibly creating a short chain of doomed invalid blocks that confirm an invalid spend. This can confuse SPV wallets, who might see multiple confirmations of a transaction and accept the funds, but later find that in fact it is invalid under the now-activated softfork rules.
Thus, a very high threshold was imposed. 95% is considered safe. 50% is definitely not safe. Due to variance in the mining process, 80% could also be potentially unsafe (i.e. 80% of blocks signaling might have a good chance of coming from only 60% of miners), so a threshold of 95% was considered "safe enough for Bitcoin work".
Why have a timeout that disables the upgrade?
Before BIP9, what was used was either flag day or BIP34. BIP34 had no flag day of activation or a bit, instead, it was just a 95% threshold to signal an nVersion value greater than a specific value. Actually, it was two thresholds: at 75%, blocks with the new nVersion would have the new softfork rules imposed, but at 95% blocks with the old nVersion would be rejected (and only the new blocks, with the new softfork rules, were accepted). For one, between 75% and 95%, there was a situation where the softfork was only "partially imposed", only blocks signaling the new rules would actually have those rules, but blocks with the old rules were still valid. This was fine for BIP34, which only added rules for miners with negligible use for non-miners.
The reasons miners signalled support was because they felt they were being pressured to signal support. So they signalled support, with plans to actually upgrade later, but because of the widespread signalling, the new BIP66 version locked in before upgrade plans were finished. Thus, the timeout that disables the upgrade was added in BIP9 to allow miners an escape hatch.
The Great Battles of the SegWit Wars
SegWit not only fixed transaction malleability, it also created a practical softforkable blocksize increase that also rebalanced weights so that the cost of spending a UTXO is about the same as the cost of creating UTXOs (and spending UTXOs is "better" since it limits the size of the UTXO set that every fullnode has to maintain). So SegWit was written, the activation was decided to be BIP9, and then.... miner signalling stalled at below 75%. Thus were the Great SegWit Wars started.
BIP9 Feature Hostage
If you are a miner with at least 5% global hashpower, you can hold a BIP9-activated softfork hostage. You might even secretly want the softfork to actually push through. But you might want to extract concession from the users and the developers. Like removing the halvening. Or raising or even removing the block size caps (which helps larger miners more than smaller miners, making it easier to become a bigger fish that eats all the smaller fishes). Or whatever. With BIP9, you can hold the softfork hostage. You just hold out and refuse to signal. You tell everyone you will signal, if and only if certain concessions are given to you. This ability by miners to hold a feature hostage was enabled because of the miner-exit allowed by the timeout on BIP9. Prior to that, miners were considered little more than expendable security guards, paid for the risk they take to secure the network, but not special in the grand scheme of Bitcoin.
ASICBoost was a novel way of optimizing SHA256 mining, by taking advantage of the structure of the 80-byte header that is hashed in order to perform proof-of-work. The details of ASICBoost are out-of-scope here but you can read about it elsewhere Here is a short summary of the two types of ASICBoost, relevant to the activation discussion.
Overt ASICBoost - Manipulates the unused bits in nVersion to reduce power consumption in mining.
Covert ASICBoost - Manipulates the order of transactions in the block to reduce power consumption in mining.
Now, "overt" means "obvious", while "covert" means hidden. Overt ASICBoost is obvious because nVersion bits that are not currently in use for BIP9 activations are usually 0 by default, so setting those bits to 1 makes it obvious that you are doing something weird (namely, Overt ASICBoost). Covert ASICBoost is non-obvious because the order of transactions in a block are up to the miner anyway, so the miner rearranging the transactions in order to get lower power consumption is not going to be detected. Unfortunately, while Overt ASICBoost was compatible with SegWit, Covert ASICBoost was not. This is because, pre-SegWit, only the block header Merkle tree committed to the transaction ordering. However, with SegWit, another Merkle tree exists, which commits to transaction ordering as well. Covert ASICBoost would require more computation to manipulate two Merkle trees, obviating the power benefits of Covert ASICBoost anyway. Now, miners want to use ASICBoost (indeed, about 60->70% of current miners probably use the Overt ASICBoost nowadays; if you have a Bitcoin fullnode running you will see the logs with lots of "60 of last 100 blocks had unexpected versions" which is exactly what you would see with the nVersion manipulation that Overt ASICBoost does). But remember: ASICBoost was, at around the time, a novel improvement. Not all miners had ASICBoost hardware. Those who did, did not want it known that they had ASICBoost hardware, and wanted to do Covert ASICBoost! But Covert ASICBoost is incompatible with SegWit, because SegWit actually has two Merkle trees of transaction data, and Covert ASICBoost works by fudging around with transaction ordering in a block, and recomputing two Merkle Trees is more expensive than recomputing just one (and loses the ASICBoost advantage). Of course, those miners that wanted Covert ASICBoost did not want to openly admit that they had ASICBoost hardware, they wanted to keep their advantage secret because miners are strongly competitive in a very tight market. And doing ASICBoost Covertly was just the ticket, but they could not work post-SegWit. Fortunately, due to the BIP9 activation process, they could hold SegWit hostage while covertly taking advantage of Covert ASICBoost!
UASF: BIP148 and BIP8
When the incompatibility between Covert ASICBoost and SegWit was realized, still, activation of SegWit stalled, and miners were still not openly claiming that ASICBoost was related to non-activation of SegWit. Eventually, a new proposal was created: BIP148. With this rule, 3 months before the end of the SegWit timeout, nodes would reject blocks that did not signal SegWit. Thus, 3 months before SegWit timeout, BIP148 would force activation of SegWit. This proposal was not accepted by Bitcoin Core, due to the shortening of the timeout (it effectively times out 3 months before the initial SegWit timeout). Instead, a fork of Bitcoin Core was created which added the patch to comply with BIP148. This was claimed as a User Activated Soft Fork, UASF, since users could freely download the alternate fork rather than sticking with the developers of Bitcoin Core. Now, BIP148 effectively is just a BIP9 activation, except at its (earlier) timeout, the new rules would be activated anyway (instead of the BIP9-mandated behavior that the upgrade is cancelled at the end of the timeout). BIP148 was actually inspired by the BIP8 proposal (the link here is a historical version; BIP8 has been updated recently, precisely in preparation for Taproot activation). BIP8 is basically BIP9, but at the end of timeout, the softfork is activated anyway rather than cancelled. This removed the ability of miners to hold the softfork hostage. At best, they can delay the activation, but not stop it entirely by holding out as in BIP9. Of course, this implies risk that not all miners have upgraded before activation, leading to possible losses for SPV users, as well as again re-pressuring miners to signal activation, possibly without the miners actually upgrading their software to properly impose the new softfork rules.
BIP91, SegWit2X, and The Aftermath
BIP148 inspired countermeasures, possibly from the Covert ASiCBoost miners, possibly from concerned users who wanted to offer concessions to miners. To this day, the common name for BIP148 - UASF - remains an emotionally-charged rallying cry for parts of the Bitcoin community. One of these was SegWit2X. This was brokered in a deal between some Bitcoin personalities at a conference in New York, and thus part of the so-called "New York Agreement" or NYA, another emotionally-charged acronym. The text of the NYA was basically:
Set up a new activation threshold at 80% signalled at bit 4 (vs bit 1 for SegWit).
When this 80% signalling was reached, miners would require that bit 1 for SegWit be signalled to achive the 95% activation needed for SegWit.
If the bit 4 signalling reached 80%, increase the block weight limit from the SegWit 4000000 to the SegWit2X 8000000, 6 months after bit 1 activation.
The first item above was coded in BIP91. Unfortunately, if you read the BIP91, independently of NYA, you might come to the conclusion that BIP91 was only about lowering the threshold to 80%. In particular, BIP91 never mentions anything about the second point above, it never mentions that bit 4 80% threshold would also signal for a later hardfork increase in weight limit. Because of this, even though there are claims that NYA (SegWit2X) reached 80% dominance, a close reading of BIP91 shows that the 80% dominance was only for SegWit activation, without necessarily a later 2x capacity hardfork (SegWit2X). This ambiguity of bit 4 (NYA says it includes a 2x capacity hardfork, BIP91 says it does not) has continued to be a thorn in blocksize debates later. Economically speaking, Bitcoin futures between SegWit and SegWit2X showed strong economic dominance in favor of SegWit (SegWit2X futures were traded at a fraction in value of SegWit futures: I personally made a tidy but small amount of money betting against SegWit2X in the futures market), so suggesting that NYA achieved 80% dominance even in mining is laughable, but the NYA text that ties bit 4 to SegWit2X still exists. Historically, BIP91 triggered which caused SegWit to activate before the BIP148 shorter timeout. BIP148 proponents continue to hold this day that it was the BIP148 shorter timeout and no-compromises-activate-on-August-1 that made miners flock to BIP91 as a face-saving tactic that actually removed the second clause of NYA. NYA supporters keep pointing to the bit 4 text in the NYA and the historical activation of BIP91 as a failed promise by Bitcoin developers.
We have discussed BIP8: roughly, it has bit and timeout, if 95% of miners signal bit it activates, at the end of timeout it activates. (EDIT: BIP8 has had recent updates: at the end of timeout it can now activate or fail. For the most part, in the below text "BIP8", means BIP8-and-activate-at-timeout, and "BIP9" means BIP8-and-fail-at-timeout) So let's take a look at Modern Softfork Activation!
Modern Softfork Activation
This is a more complex activation method, composed of BIP9 and BIP8 as supcomponents.
First have a 12-month BIP9 (fail at timeout).
If the above fails to activate, have a 6-month discussion period during which users and developers and miners discuss whether to continue to step 3.
Have a 24-month BIP8 (activate at timeout).
The total above is 42 months, if you are counting: 3.5 years worst-case activation. The logic here is that if there are no problems, BIP9 will work just fine anyway. And if there are problems, the 6-month period should weed it out. Finally, miners cannot hold the feature hostage since the 24-month BIP8 period will exist anyway.
PSA: Being Resilient to Upgrades
Software is very birttle. Anyone who has been using software for a long time has experienced something like this:
You hear a new version of your favorite software has a nice new feature.
Excited, you install the new version.
You find that the new version has subtle incompatibilities with your current workflow.
You are sad and downgrade to the older version.
You find out that the new version has changed your files in incompatible ways that the old version cannot work with anymore.
You tearfully reinstall the newer version and figure out how to get your lost productivity now that you have to adapt to a new workflow
If you are a technically-competent user, you might codify your workflow into a bunch of programs. And then you upgrade one of the external pieces of software you are using, and find that it has a subtle incompatibility with your current workflow which is based on a bunch of simple programs you wrote yourself. And if those simple programs are used as the basis of some important production system, you hve just screwed up because you upgraded software on an important production system. And well, one of the issues with new softfork activation is that if not enough people (users and miners) upgrade to the newest Bitcoin software, the security of the new softfork rules are at risk. Upgrading software of any kind is always a risk, and the more software you build on top of the software-being-upgraded, the greater you risk your tower of software collapsing while you change its foundations. So if you have some complex Bitcoin-manipulating system with Bitcoin somewhere at the foundations, consider running two Bitcoin nodes:
One is a "stable-version" Bitcoin node. Once it has synced, set it up to connect=x.x.x.x to the second node below (so that your ISP bandwidth is only spent on the second node). Use this node to run all your software: it's a stable version that you don't change for long periods of time. Enable txiindex, disable pruning, whatever your software needs.
The other is an "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin Node. Keep its stoarge down with pruning (initially sync it off the "stable-version" node). You can't use blocksonly if your "stable-version" node needs to send transactions, but otherwise this "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node can be kept as a low-resource node, so you can run both nodes in the same machine.
When a new Bitcoin version comes up, you just upgrade the "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node. This protects you if a future softfork activates, you will only receive valid Bitcoin blocks and transactions. Since this node has nothing running on top of it, it is just a special peer of the "stable-version" node, any software incompatibilities with your system software do not exist. Your "stable-version" Bitcoin node remains the same version until you are ready to actually upgrade this node and are prepared to rewrite most of the software you have running on top of it due to version compatibility problems. When upgrading the "always-up-to-date", you can bring it down safely and then start it later. Your "stable-version" wil keep running, disconnected from the network, but otherwise still available for whatever queries. You do need some system to stop the "always-up-to-date" node if for any reason the "stable-version" goes down (otherwisee if the "always-up-to-date" advances its pruning window past what your "stable-version" has, the "stable-version" cannot sync afterwards), but if you are technically competent enough that you need to do this, you are technically competent enough to write such a trivial monitor program (EDIT: gmax notes you can adjust the pruning window by RPC commands to help with this as well). This recommendation is from gmaxwell on IRC, by the way.
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In the current project for Blockchain industy,Rayleigh chain is the first chain to do open pay network, we can pay any types of currency on this public chain; Low transaction processing fees and high transaction confirmation speed are exceeding the tradition cross border payment industry; The emergence of Rayleigh chain is making a great contribution for blockchain global applications updating; In many years, Rayleigh business has remained stagnant, the main line ecosystem mode has been criticized for over centralizing, meanwhile, as DeFi industry is rising up, global financial ecosystem has higher standard for decentralized finance, traceability, expanding, perfecting ecosystem problems is coming one after another, Global payment update is imperative. New generation public chain at business level "AITD Blockchain" is emerging as current time needs". AITD Blockchain is achieving new updated global open payment network, solving the current traceability, expansion, ecosystem problems and making great contribution to facilitate blockchain 3.0;The reason for achieving block chain 3.0 global payment futher goal is contributing to the 4 advantages of public chain ecosystem. Traceable ecosystem,blockchain traceable system can upload the traceable information completely on the blockchain,enabling safe, permanent stored in decentralized data system; using one object-one code- one coin mode during transactions, which can help corporation build a safe and realible supply chain ecosystem fast, achieving block chain anti-counterfeiting, offline product verification, online traceability imagination;meanwhile, traceable information contains tamper prove, encrypted transactions, permanent storage characteristics, which can protect the authenticity of product supply chains. https://preview.redd.it/yq3teba38bk51.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3a56b7afb707dbb3380796df4ba1cd133d0c1a1e Gateway functions: So-called Gateway is real world clearing house and connecting block chain online users to build trust, getting transaction channel; We can consider gateway as a single transaction station on chain, the existance of these stations is for serving on chain users; when they obtain trust from blockchain, then fast cross region payments, liquidation can be achieved,Gate way will provide digitalized assets, cross region payments, cross region transferring, allocation transactions around 10 blockchain application scenarios, improving overall cross region payments or other businesses efficiency, building greater value for global payment system; Gateway will gain economical value when provide services to users on the chain, such as obtaining interests earning, withdrawling processing fee earning, earning matching income, obtaining flow value. Infinite dilation: The essence of blockchain is distributed information accountbook. In the Bitcoin public chain, to achieve tamper prove , transparency trait for information etc, requiring operation node to download complete block chains record, which is causing operation node to endure significant amount of pressure, turning transaction confirmation process into complicated process; Therefore, Bitcoin ,etherum congestion problems are becoming homostasis status, frequency to handle transactions are becoming the main competitive force for new generated public chain; When it is facing dilation problems, AITD public chain choose to divide nodes into four different types, sharding managment, which is to reduce storage pressure, improving operating efficiency for blocks; The design of sharding node is allowing nodes to attend its own duty, confirming transactions in faster way, alleviating public chain operation pressure, realizing infinite dilation. Types of nodes Ø (Collector) In charge of receiving transaction, transfer to people who completed ranking, processing customer side SDK to start collecting. Ø (Examiner) In charge of trade request inspection, executing transaction and maintaining block chain, account structure. Ø (Reserve) In charge of inspecting and storing proposal from user side. Ø (VISA) In charge of administrating all the certificates(include distribution,withdrawl) Distributed nodes design is allowing each node doing its job, ensuring transactions at a fast speed. Alleviating the operation pressure on public chain, achieving infinite dilatation. TIPS unlimited : AITD Blockchain uses modern digital communication, block chain, mobile communication and internet of things techniques, providing convenient efficient deposit ,loan,payments, settlement,transfer ,electric invoices, digital credit , account management, currency exchange, P2Pfinance, investment financing, financial information etc,comprehensive seamless, convenient,safe, high speed decentralized financial services; AITD is revolutionizing traditional banking, becoming the leader for future finance layout , transferring traditional banks from offline to online completely, realizing all the business operations online, building a brand new decentralized banking system, the competitive advantages for decentralized banks are cancelling traditional banks physical branch through blockchain technology, meanwhile, minimising human resources cost for banks, it is concentrating on customer experiences, achieving public sharing, transparency,openess, global interconnected. Ecosystem kingdom, connecting future Many people like to call blockchain 3.0 as an ideal period for blockchain, In this ideal period, we can not only achieve the Trust Finance that we orginally intend to do, but also separate "Fraud" "Money gimmick" and blockchain into unrelated fields, allowing blockchain to serve for Finance like internet technology, society or new Global layer technique; adding new features for blockchain 3.0. What types of scenarios can updated blockchain 3.0 connected to ? First is the cross region payment problems that is seeking most attention on the way to globalization; AITD Blockchain global cross region payment is going to achieve improvenment on efficiency , lowering cost, safety tracebility etc;First,traditional cross region payment is not time synchronized, banks are usually handle transactions in groups at the end of the day. Each transaction will need 24 hours or above to complete. Second, traditional cross region payment model is consisting large amount of human account checking and depending on third organizations, which causes high processing fee, according to the report (2016 global payment ) , completing a cross region payment through correspondent banks will usually cost 25 US dollars to 35 US dollars; In monitoring aspects, there are loopholes exisiting in traditional banks which is considering as centralized organization; Above AITD Blockchain, these problems can be perfectly solved through blockchain technology; Block chain +cross region payament will achieve P2P settlements, improving efficiency, lowering cost, blockchain Transaction transparency , information publicized, transaction record permenently saved traits realizing transaction record traceability. https://preview.redd.it/wb9mjyj18bk51.jpg?width=2000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7419873e2bf9e831f66a0a6e35c3c759f9b018ea We talked about the advantages of AITD Blockchain global cross border payments, in the process to achieve globalized payment, assets digitalization and information sharing functions are crucial; AITD Blockchain uses blockchain technology to achieve assets digitalization, what we called token, on chain token is easier to divide compare to traditional entity assets, flowing is more convenient,minimising transaction cost at the mean time; achieving assets digitalization through blockchain technique, all assets transaction record can be released to public ,transparent,permenent storage , traceable by using blockchain technology, these traits satisified the monitoring requirement compare to traditional entity assets; AITD can also achieve information sharing function when assets digitalization begin, AITD Block chain will build a safe reliable information sharing channel through block chain irreversible traits and consensus algorithm,realizing information transparency. To build blockchain 3.0, solving corporation financing,loan etc most commonly meet problems are the required functions for AITD Blockchain; In the whole financial supply chain, middle, small, micro sized corporations are most difficult to achieve financing, The main reason is shortage of efficient credit mechanism between Banks and middle, small corporations. AITD Blockchain's mission is building Trust between loan providing financial organization and small, micro coporation;AITD Blockchain is building completely supply chain financing system, ensuring data reliability of supply chain core coporation through blockchain private key signature techniques, uploading contract, invoices on the chain, achieving value delivery for assets digitalization; After blockchain is solving data reliability and value flow, banks and other financial organizations will not process single evaluation for middle, small size corporation, but they are evaluating through core corporation's will of payment , invoice and data on chain, middle, small, micro corporation financing memorizing, achieving transpassing from single node financing to whole chain financing, therefore minimising the financing cost and solving financing difficulties.
A Glance at the Heart: Proof-of-Authority Technology in the UMI Network
https://preview.redd.it/vhvj6v093df51.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=00c0c223d9758edec8ed49a8cb9024f96d3ee343 Greetings from the UMI Team! Our Whitepaper describes in detail the key pros and cons of the two mechanisms which the great majority of other cryptocurrencies are based on: ● Proof-of-Work (PoW) — mining technology. Used in Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Monero, etc. ● Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and its derivatives — forging technology. Used in Nxt, PeerCoin, NEO, PRIZM, etc. As a result of a careful analysis of PoW and PoS, which are designed to fight against centralization, there came a conclusion that they both fail to perform their main mission and, in the long run, they lead to the network centralization and poor performance. For this reason, we took a different approach. We use Proof-of-Authority (PoA) algorithm coupled with master nodes, which can ensure the UMI network with decentralization and maximum speed. The Whitepaper allows you to understand the obvious things. This article will give you a clear and detailed explanation of the technology implemented in the UMI network. Let's glance at the heart of the network right now. Proof-of-Authority: How and Why It Emerged It's been over a decade since the first transaction in the Bitcoin network. Over this time, the blockchain technology has undergone some qualitative changes. It's down to the fact that the cryptocurrency world seeing the emerging Proof-of-Work defects in the Bitcoin network year after year has actively searched for ways to eliminate them. PoW decentralization and reliability has an underside of low capacity and scalability problem that prevents the network from rectifying this shortcoming. Moreover, with the growing popularity of Bitcoin, greed of miners who benefit from high fees resulting from the low network throughput has become a serious problem. Miners have also started to create pools making the network more and more centralized. The “human factor” that purposefully slowed down the network and undermined its security could never be eliminated. All this essentially limits the potential for using PoW-based cryptocurrencies on a bigger scale. Since PoW upgrade ideas came to nothing, crypto community activists have suggested cardinally new solutions and started to develop other protocols. This is how the Proof-of-Stake technology emerged. However, it proved to be excellent in theory rather than in practice. Overall, PoS-based cryptocurrencies do demonstrate a higher capacity, but the difference is not as striking. Moreover, PoS could not fully solve the scalability issue. In the hope that it could cope with the disaster plaguing all cryptocurrencies, the community came up with brand new algorithms based on alternative operating principles. One of them is the Proof-of-Authority technology. It was meant to be an effective alternative with a high capacity and a solution to the scalability problem. The idea of using PoA in cryptocurrencies was offered by Gavin Wood — a high-profile blockchain programmer and Ethereum co-founder. Proof-of-Authority Major Features PoA's major difference from PoW and PoS lies in the elimination of miner or forger races. Network users do not fight for the right to be the first to create a block and receive an award, as it happens with cryptocurrencies based on other technologies. In this case blockchain's operating principle is substantially different — Proof-of-Authority uses the “reputation system” and only allows trusted nodes to create blocks. It solves the scalability problem allowing to considerably increase capacity and handle transactions almost instantly without wasting time on unnecessary calculations made by miners and forgers. Moreover, trusted nodes must meet the strict capacity requirements. This is one the main reasons why we have selected PoA since this is the only technology allowing to fully use super-fast nodes. Due to these features, the Proof-of-Authority algorithm is seen as one of the most effective and promising options for bringing blockchain to various business sectors. For instance, its model perfectly fits the logistics and supply chain management sectors. As an outstanding example, PoA is effectively used by the Microsoft Azure cloud platform to offer various tools for bringing blockchain solutions to businesses. How the UMI Network Gets Rid of the Defects and Incorporates the Benefits of Proof-of-Authority Method Any system has both drawbacks and advantages — so does PoA. According to the original PoA model, each trusted node can create a block, while it is technically impossible for ordinary users to interfere with the system operation. This makes PoA-based cryptocurrencies a lot more centralized than those based on PoW or PoS. This has always been the main reason for criticizing the PoA technology. We understood that only a completely decentralized product could translate our vision of a "hard-to-hit", secure and transparent monetary instrument into reality. Therefore, we started with upgrading its basic operating principle in order to create a product that will incorporate all the best features while eliminating the defects. What we’ve got is a decentralized PoA method. We will try to explain at the elementary level: - We've divided the nodes in the UMI network into two types: master nodes and validator nodes. - Only master nodes have the right to create blocks and confirm transactions. Among master node holders there's the UMI team and their trusted partners from across the world. Moreover, we deliberately keep some of our partners — those who hold master nodes — in secret in order to secure ourselves against potential negative influence, manipulation, and threats from third parties. This way we ensure maximum coherent and reliable system operation. - However, since the core idea behind a decentralized cryptocurrency rules out any kind of trust, the blockchain is secured to prevent master nodes from harming the network in the event of sabotage or collusion. It might happen to Bitcoin or other PoW- or PoS-based cryptocurrencies if, for example, several large mining pools unite and perform a 51% attack. But it can’t happen to UMI. First, the worst that bad faith master node holders can do is to negligibly slow down the network. But the UMI network will automatically respond to it by banning such nodes. Thus, master nodes will prevent any partner from doing intentional harm to the network. Moreover, it will not be able to do this, even if most other partners support it. Nothing — not even quantum computers — will help hackers. Read our post "UMI Blockchain Six-Level Security" for more details. - A validator node can be launched by any participant. Validator nodes maintain the network by verifying the correctness of blocks and excluding the possibility of fakes. In doing so they increase the overall network security and help master nodes carry out their functions. More importantly, those who hold validator nodes control those who hold master nodes and confirm that the latter don't violate anything and comply with the rules. You can find more details about validator nodes in the article we mentioned above. - Finally, the network allows all interested users to launch light nodes (SPV), which enables viewing and sending transactions without having to download the blockchain and maintain the network. With light nodes, any network user can make sure if the system is operating properly and doesn't have to download the blockchain to do this. - In addition, we are developing the ability to protect the network in case 100% of the master nodes (10,000 master nodes in total) are "disabled" for some reason. Even this is virtually impossible, we've thought ahead and in the worst-case scenario, the system will automatically move to PoS. By doing so, it will be able to continue processing transactions. We're going to tell you about this in our next publications. Thus, the UMI network uses an upgraded version of this technology which possesses all its advantages with drawbacks eliminated. This model is truly decentralized and maximum secured. Another major drawback of PoA-based cryptos is no possibility to grant incentives to users. PoA doesn't imply forging or mining which allow users to earn cryptocurrency while generating new coins. No reward for maintaining the network is the main reason why the crypto community is not interested in PoA. This is, of course, unfair. With this in mind, the UMI team has found the best solution — the unique staking smart-contract. It allows you to increase the number of your coins up to 40% per month even with no mining or forging meaning the human factor cannot have a negative impact on the decentralization and network performance. New-Generation Proof-of-Authority The UMI network uses an upgraded version of PoA technology which possesses all its advantages with drawbacks virtually eliminated. This makes UMI a decentralized, easily scalable, and yet the most secure, productive, profitable and fair cryptocurrency, working for the sake of all people. The widespread use of UMI can change most aspects of society in different areas, including production, commerce, logistics, and all financial arrangements. We are just beginning this journey and thrilled to have you with us. Let's change the world together! Best regards, UMI Team!
Crypto-Powered - The Most Promising Use-Cases of Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
A whirlwind tour of Defi, paying close attention to protocols that we’re leveraging atGenesis Block. https://reddit.com/link/hrrt21/video/cvjh5rrh12b51/player This is the third post ofCrypto-Powered— a new series that examines what it means forGenesis Blockto be a digital bank that’s powered by crypto, blockchain, and decentralized protocols. Last week we explored how building on legacy finance is a fool’s errand. The future of money belongs to those who build with crypto and blockchain at their core. We also started down the crypto rabbit hole, introducing Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi (decentralized finance). That post is required reading if you hope to glean any value from the rest of this series. 97% of all activity on Ethereum in the last quarter has been DeFi-related. The total value sitting inside DeFi protocols is roughly $2B — double what it was a month ago. The explosive growth cannot be ignored. All signs suggest that Ethereum & DeFi are a Match Made in Heaven, and both on their way to finding strong product/market fit. So in this post, we’re doing a whirlwind tour of DeFi. We look at specific examples and use-cases already in the wild and seeing strong growth. And we pay close attention to protocols that Genesis Block is integrating with. Alright, let’s dive in.
Stablecoins are exactly what they sound like: cryptocurrencies that are stable. They are not meant to be volatile (like Bitcoin). These assets attempt to peg their price to some external reference (eg. USD or Gold). A non-volatile crypto asset can be incredibly useful for things like merchant payments, cross-border transfers, or storing wealth — becoming your own bank but without the stress of constant price volatility. There are major governments and central banks that are experimenting with or soon launching their own stablecoins like China with their digital yuan and the US Federal Reserve with their digital dollar. There are also major corporations working in this area like JP Morgan with their JPM Coin, and of course Facebook with their Libra Project.
Stablecoin activity has grown 800% in the last year, with $290B of transaction volume (funds moving on-chain).
USDC($1B): This is the most reputable USD-backed stablecoin, at least in the West. It was created by Coinbase & Circle, both well-regarded crypto companies. They’ve been very open and transparent with their audits and bank records.
DAI ($189M): This is backed by other crypto assets — not USD in a bank account. This was arguably the first true DeFi protocol. The big benefit is that it’s more decentralized — it’s not controlled by any single organization. The downside is that the assets backing it can be volatile crypto assets (though it has mechanisms in place to mitigate that risk).
Three of the top five DeFi protocols relate to lending & borrowing. These popular lending protocols look very similar to traditional money markets. Users who want to earn interest/yield can deposit (lend) their funds into a pool of liquidity. Because it behaves similarly to traditional money markets, their funds are not locked, they can withdraw at any time. It’s highly liquid. Borrowers can tap into this pool of liquidity and take out loans. Interest rates depend on the utilization rate of the pool — how much of the deposits in the pool have already been borrowed. Supply & demand. Thus, interest rates are variable and borrowers can pay their loans back at any time.
So, who decides how much a borrower can take? What’s the process like? Are there credit checks? How is credit-worthiness determined?
These protocols are decentralized, borderless, permissionless. The people participating in these markets are from all over the world. There is no simple way to verify identity or check credit history. So none of that happens. Credit-worthiness is determined simply by how much crypto collateral the borrower puts into the protocol. For example, if a user wants to borrow $5k of USDC, then they’ll need to deposit $10k of BTC or ETH. The exact amount of collateral depends on the rules of the protocol — usually the more liquid the collateral asset, the more borrowing power the user can receive. The most prominent lending protocols include Compound, Aave, Maker, and Atomic Loans. Recently, Compound has seen meteoric growth with the introduction of their COMP token — a token used to incentivize and reward participants of the protocol. There’s almost $1B in outstanding debt in the Compound protocol. Mainframe is also working on an exciting protocol in this area and the latest iteration of their white paper should be coming out soon.
There is very little economic risk to these protocols because all loans are overcollateralized.
Buying, selling, and trading crypto assets is certainly one form of investing (though not for the faint of heart). But there are now DeFi protocols to facilitate making and managing traditional-style investments. Through DeFi, you can invest in Gold. You can invest in stocks like Amazon and Apple. You can short Tesla. You can access the S&P 500. This is done through crypto-based synthetics — which gives users exposure to assets without needing to hold or own the underlying asset. This is all possible with protocols like UMA, Synthetix, or Market protocol. Maybe your style of investing is more passive. With PoolTogether , you can participate in a no-loss lottery. Maybe you’re an advanced trader and want to trade options or futures. You can do that with DeFi protocols like Convexity, Futureswap, and dYdX. Maybe you live on the wild side and trade on margin or leverage, you can do that with protocols like Fulcrum, Nuo, and DDEX. Or maybe you’re a degenerate gambler and want to bet against Trump in the upcoming election, you can do that on Augur. And there are plenty of DeFi protocols to help with crypto investing. You could use Set Protocol if you need automated trading strategies. You could use Melonport if you’re an asset manager. You could use Balancer to automatically rebalance your portfolio. With as little as $1, people all over the world can have access to the same investment opportunities and tools that used to be reserved for only the wealthy, or those lucky enough to be born in the right country.
You can start to imagine how services like Etrade, TD Ameritrade, Schwab, and even Robinhood could be massively disrupted by a crypto-native company that builds with these types of protocols at their foundation.
As mentioned in our previous post, there are near-infinite applications one can build on Ethereum. As a result, sometimes the code doesn’t work as expected. Bugs get through, it breaks. We’re still early in our industry. The tools, frameworks, and best practices are all still being established. Things can go wrong. Sometimes the application just gets in a weird or bad state where funds can’t be recovered — like with what happened with Parity where $280M got frozen (yes, I lost some money in that). Sometimes, there are hackers who discover a vulnerability in the code and maliciously steal funds — like how dForce lost $25M a few months ago, or how The DAO lost $50M a few years ago. And sometimes the system works as designed, but the economic model behind it is flawed, so a clever user takes advantage of the system— like what recently happened with Balancer where they lost $500k. There are a lot of risks when interacting with smart contracts and decentralized applications — especially for ones that haven’t stood the test of time. This is why insurance is such an important development in DeFi.
Insurance will be an essential component in helping this technology reach the masses.
Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) were one of the first and most developed categories in DeFi. A DEX allows a user to easily exchange one crypto asset for another crypto asset — but without needing to sign up for an account, verify identity, etc. It’s all via decentralized protocols. Within the first 5 months of 2020, the top 7 DEX already achieved the 2019 trading volume. That was $2.5B. DeFi is fueling a lot of this growth. https://preview.redd.it/1dwvq4e022b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=97a3d756f60239cd147031eb95fc2a981db55943 There are many different flavors of DEX. Some of the early ones included 0x, IDEX, and EtherDelta — all of which had a traditional order book model where buyers are matched with sellers. Another flavor is the pooled liquidity approach where the price is determined algorithmically based on how much liquidity there is and how much the user wants to buy. This is known as an AMM (Automated Market Maker) — Uniswap and Bancor were early leaders here. Though lately, Balancer has seen incredible growth due mostly to their strong incentives for participation — similar to Compound. There are some DEXs that are more specialized — for example, Curve and mStable focus mostly only stablecoins. Because of the proliferation of these decentralized exchanges, there are now aggregators that combine and connect the liquidity of many sources. Those include Kyber, Totle, 1Inch, and Dex.ag.
These decentralized exchanges are becoming more and more connected to DeFi because they provide an opportunity for yield and earning interest.
As it relates to making payments, much of the world is still stuck on plastic cards. We’re grateful to partner with Visa and launch the Genesis Block debit card… but we still don’t believe that's the future of payments. We see that as an important bridge between the past (legacy finance) and the future (crypto). Our first post in this series shared more on why legacy finance is broken. We talked about the countless unnecessary middle-men on every card swipe (merchant, acquiring bank, processor, card network, issuing bank). We talked about the slow settlement times. The future of payments will be much better. Yes, it’ll be from a mobile phone and the user experience will be similar to ApplePay (NFC) or WePay (QR Code).
But more importantly, the underlying assets being moved/exchanged will all be crypto — digital, permissionless, and open source.
Someone making a payment at the grocery store check-out line will be able to open up Genesis Block, use contactless tech or scan a QR code, and instantly pay for their goods. All using crypto. Likely a stablecoin. Settlement will be instant. All the middlemen getting their pound of flesh will be disintermediated. The merchant can make more and the user can spend less. Blockchain FTW! Now let’s talk about a few projects working in this area. The xDai Burner Wallet experience was incredible at the ETHDenver event a few years ago, but that speed came at the expense of full decentralization (can it be censored or shut down?). Of course, Facebook’s Libra wants to become the new standard for global payments, but many are afraid to give Facebook that much control (newsflash: it isn’t very decentralized). Bitcoin is decentralized… but it’s slow and volatile. There are strong projects like Lightning Network (Zap example) that are still trying to make it happen. Projects like Connext and OmiseGo are trying to help bring payments to Ethereum. The Flexa project is leveraging the gift card rails, which is a nice hack to leverage existing pipes. And if ETH 2.0 is as fast as they say it will be, then the future of payments could just be a stablecoin like DAI (a token on Ethereum). In a way, being able to spend crypto on daily expenses is the holy grail of use-cases. It’s still early. It hasn’t yet been solved. But once we achieve this, then we can ultimately and finally say goodbye to the legacy banking & finance world. Employees can be paid in crypto. Employees can spend in crypto. It changes everything.
Legacy finance is hanging on by a thread, and it’s this use-case that they are still clinging to. Once solved, DeFi domination will be complete.
At Genesis Block, we’re excited to leverage these protocols and take this incredible technology to the world. Many of these protocols are already deeply integrated with our product. In fact, many are essential. The masses won’t know (or care about) what Tether, USDC, or DAI is. They think in dollars, euros, pounds and pesos. So while the user sees their local currency in the app, the underlying technology is all leveraging stablecoins. It’s all on “crypto rails.” https://preview.redd.it/jajzttr622b51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=fcf55cea1216a1d2fcc3bf327858b009965f9bf8 When users deposit assets into their Genesis Block account, they expect to earn interest. They expect that money to grow. We leverage many of these low-risk lending/exchange DeFi protocols. We lend into decentralized money markets like Compound — where all loans are overcollateralized. Or we supply liquidity to AMM exchanges like Balancer. This allows us to earn interest and generate yield for our depositors. We’re the experts so our users don’t need to be. We haven’t yet integrated with any of the insurance or investment protocols — but we certainly plan on it. Our infrastructure is built with blockchain technology at the heart and our system is extensible — we’re ready to add assets and protocols when we feel they are ready, safe, secure, and stable. Many of these protocols are still in the experimental phase. It’s still early.
At Genesis Block we’re excited to continue to be at the frontlines of this incredible, innovative, technological revolution called DeFi.
--- None of these powerful DeFi protocols will be replacing Robinhood, SoFi, or Venmo anytime soon. They never will. They aren’t meant to! We’ve discussed this before, these are low-level protocols that need killer applications, like Genesis Block. So now that we’ve gone a little deeper down the rabbit hole and we’ve done this whirlwind tour of DeFi, the natural next question is: why?
Why does any of it matter?
Most of these financial services that DeFi offers already exist in the real world. So why does it need to be on a blockchain? Why does it need to be decentralized? What new value is unlocked? Next post, we answer these important questions. To look at more projects in DeFi, check outDeFi Prime,DeFi Pulse, orConsensys. ------ Other Ways to Consume Today's Episode:
Welcome to dashpay! If you are new to Dash, we encourage you to check out our wiki, where the Dash project is explained from the ground up with many links to valuable information resources. Also check out the menu bar on top and the sidebar to the right. We have very active Discord and Telegram channels where the community is happy to answer any and all newcomer questions.
Purpose of this post
This post is directed towards community members who wish to rapidly access information on current developments surrounding the Dash cryptocurrency. Lately we've noticed how the pace of events picked up significantly within the Dash project due to many years of hard work coming together and pieces falling into place ("Evolution" is finally here. It's called Dash Platform). For the purpose of keeping these many pieces of information together, however, singular Reddit submissions are insufficient. Thus we decided to maintain a pinned thread collecting blog posts, interviews, articles, podcasts, videos & announcements. Check back regularly, as this thread will always feature the latest news around Dash, while also serving as a mid-term archive for important announcements and developments. Journalists looking for news and contact opportunities wrt Dash, please bookmark:
WHAT IS ETHEREUM? Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract functionality, It is the second most valuable Cryptocurrency, just right behind BITCOIN, ETHEREUM can also be converted to cash easily, hence its a digital currency which can be converted to NAIRA or DOLLARS OR POUND STERLING ETHEREUM can simply be referred to as ETH Ethereum is our major goal but here comes the big question. 💸💸💸💸💸💸💸💸💸 CAN YOU AFFORD TO BUY 1ETH AT THE COST OF 100K+? 💰💰💰💰💰💰💰 CAN YOU? No doubts some people can but many of us here cannot. 🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥 If I don't have up to 100k, What is Million Money and How do I join this system then? WHAT IS MILLION MONEY? Million Money is a program designed on the Ethereum Block Chain Smart Contract, so that execution of activities and transactions would be automatic and free of fraud. Benefits of Joining the Million Money Project 1.) Registration fee is only 0.055ETH which is (N5000 now but since Ethereum is always rising, it could be increase) 2.) The program is self sufficient, it cannot be stopped or destroyed because it is built on blockchain technology, no administrator is needed and it can only be ended when there is no electricity and internet in the world. 3.) It is a member to member crowdfunding program meaning registration are sent direct to other members Ethereum wallet and every registered member is in full control of their wallet. 4.) Every member introduces only 2 people once ( It is a forced 2 X 5 matrix) 5.) You can choose to dedicate your spare time to build this program and become very rich as you grow your team. 6.) It is a global program, meaning that anybody from any part of the world can sign up and join your team. 7.) Each member can earn up to 1,500ETH in total if he can be passionate enough to get to 10 levels and this can be achieved within 100 days or less depending on the speed of growth of your network. 8.) Finally, Ethereum is forecasted to hit $600 in June and $1,000 by December. Now imagine having just 32ETH from inviting just only 2 people with a registration fee of 5k ALL YOU NEED TO DO
Download 'Trust wallet' app on playstore or applestore. Create a wallet (please keep your 12 words security code very safe preferably in your mail)
You will buy the naira equivalent of 0.055 ether which is 5k at the moment to the wallet.
After which you'd register to the Million Money Project
And refer just 2 people (within 100days) with each referral, you make certain profits and move up the level as your downlines ( meaning all referrals under you) increase From the picture below, after you refer two people you get 0.01 ether as profit After your referrals also get their referrals (4 partners) you will buy level 2 and make a profit of 0.11 ether and so forth till you get the level 5 Finally, all profits are going directly in your trust wallet, you are in total control of all process. No third party involved To even understand better how million money works https://million.money/en/ I would like you to visit this website and know more about it. Need I say more? DM me in order to sign up right away and join our team. Delay is dangerous in the crypto world.
Top 7 unique, high-potential cryptocurrencies of 2019 that are actually innovating the space
Right now, the top 20 has 2 forks of Bitcoin, Tether, an exchange's token, Ethereum Classic, and a few other projects that make this space look far less serious than it really is. On the other hand, you have many great projects out of the top 20 with huge potential going forward. The purpose of this post is to discuss the cryptocurrencies that I believe are exciting, different, and already have (or are extremely close to having) a working project. These are the projects that actually keep my faith alive in crypto among all the other BS out there. I'm hoping to outline a few projects you know, as well as some smaller ones. I will exclude Bitcoin, Ethereum, and XRP from this list, as everyone knows them already and what they do. This is NOT MEANT TO BE AN ALL-INCLUSIVE LIST - that means I'm definitely missing some projects. However, these are some of the projects I believe will make seriously large contributions to the space going forward. 1 - Nano. Reddit already shills the hell out of this coin, and it's for good reason. Nano is the single fastest and cheapest (100% free) P2P digital currency in the space, period. There's something to be said about sending somebody 50 Nano and them receiving EXACTLY 50 Nano, not 49.999 or something similar. Nano is an actual innovation in the space, with a very different codebase than other coins. It uses a block lattice (instead of using a blockchain), which is an incredible invention, and is reminiscent of the kind of innovation that ETH first offered for blockchain applications in 2015 - but for digital cash. Nano feels like what Bitcoin should have been from Day 1. Download the mobile app/create a web wallet and send some back and forth between the two - you'll understand why people are so bullish on this coin once you've tried it out for yourself. 2 - Monero. If any coin most clearly resembles the fungibility and privacy of using physical cash, it's Monero. It's the only major coin that is fully private by default, 100% of the time. The recent updates over the past few months have made Monero extremely cheap and fast to use, and if you haven't tried it out, I'd highly recommend it (MyMonero's web wallet is excellent https://wallet.mymonero.com). There's no denying this coin's potential to shape the space in the future as the top privacy coin. Monero has also proven to be highly resistant to bear trends, holding its price better than nearly every other top 40 coin in the last bear market. Lastly, the team is extremely competent and makes real innovations to this coin - between making transactions fully private, cost reduction/speed upgrades, and forking away from ASIC mining, this team has proven that they are little talk, ALL action, and committed to constantly improving this cryptocurrency.
Augur - This decentralized betting platform was one of the first Ethereum dapps ever planned, and took nearly 3 years to come to fruition. It is one of the most well-made, useful dapps running on Ethereum right now and has real users making markets every single day. You can bet on pretty much anything using Augur, and it's actually completely decentralized - meaning no third parties or governments who are unhappy with the content or types of bets being placed - can shut this dapp down. It does have a few issues for sure, but I am confident that they are minor and will be resolved in time as this market continues to mature.
IOTA - No matter what you think of this coin, IOTA's tangle is undeniably different. It's DAG-like technology is refreshing to see in a space where 98% of coins are just clones/forks of other coins - even if it doesn't work the way it should yet. It's possible that the removal of blocks and instead creating a tangle of transactions where every node in the network helps to power future transactions could allow for scaling beyond what current blockchains offer.
BitTorrent - I really hesitated to list this one. Do I agree with the way Justin Sun markets and overhypes every small meeting or minor project development? Of course not. However, there is no denying that this token will expose a TON of new users to cryptocurrency for the first time - arguably more than any other dapp token. BitTorrent, the application, is already being used by millions of users, and there's no denying that. This is a rare situation and no other cryptocurrency dapp has anywhere near the user count that this BitTorrent has. While I don't love Tron in general... it is largely an Ethereum clone with few advantages other than added hype...BTT is guaranteed to at least see some real-world usage and it might be good to own a few tokens.
Upfiring - If you like the idea that BitTorrent is putting forth (rewarding seeders), Upfiring is that exact idea - but their dapp is literally already out and nobody knows about it yet. I hesitated to list this project due to the low market cap, but it just might be one of the most useful dapps out there and one of the best uses of smart contracts. The dapp is awesome - super sleek and easy to use. In terms of high potential projects, this one is huge with around a 2 million USD market cap and really could explode at any time imo. You can download their dapp right now and share files on the blockchain, set a price in UFR for your files and earn crypto when others download them. Torrenting is one of the areas that I believe crypto will make a big impact in, since rewarding seeders is an excellent use-case to incentivize file-sharing. With an ATH of 40 million, it has reached 20x the current market cap before, so the price and hype level is currently low.
Major projects to watch out for due to being overvalued or other significant red flags (please don't downvote this post if you disagree with these - instead, let us know why you disagree in the comments): 1 - Litecoin. I'd certainly agree it should be in the Top 50 due to its fame status, but the #4 position is ridiculously high for a coin like this. Put simply, there is simply no major use case for this coin. If you wanted to use something as cash, Nano and even Bitcoin Cash are arguably both better options. At least Bitcoin serves as the standard for markets on exchanges. Remember that the creator of this coin has literally sold all of it as well - while arguably a smart move on his part, it's something to keep in mind. 2 - Binance Coin. Regardless of the fact that it is Binance, and Binance is great, this coin's entire value is based on a 100% CENTRALIZED business. That's a big deal. This means if something ever happens to Binance, for whatever reason, BNB's value will directly be affected as a result. In addition, a 4.5 BILLION dollar market cap for an exchange token is just a ridiculous market cap in general, even if it is Binance. Props to Binance for making this token so successful, though. 3 - Stellar. This is a big one, and I know I'm going to take some heat for listing this, so let me clarify. I really like what Stellar is doing with payments, for sure, but one thing that makes that all null and void from an investment standpoint - Stellar's team owns over 80% of the entire Stellar coin supply. Let that sink in for a second. 19,331,690,041 XLM is circulating among every single Stellar holder, while the team themselves holds 85,710,809,041 XLM. People tend to ignore this fact for some reason, but it's unfortunately a huge deal and requires that you put a ton of trust in Stellar's team not to casually sell millions of dollars worth of their XLM whenever they want more money. How would you feel if Vitalik owned 400,000,000 ETH? That's the same ratio to what the Stellar team owns. There's also been a ton of sketchy things that have happened with the team selling off millions of dollars worth of coins in 2017/early 2018 - you can search those in the search bar to read up on those incidents where users here tracked those transactions. Lastly, Stellar is a fork of Ripple. Not that this is a bad thing necessarily, but it's something to keep note of. 4 - Bitcoin SV. Yeah, it's pumping right now. Who cares, so are lots of coins. Ignore it, and maybe it will go away. This coin once again serves no real purpose and has no place being the #8 cryptocurrency with how many great projects are sitting below it. 5 - Ethereum Classic. This coin has already been 51% attacked SUCCESSFULLY, and it's value has gone up since then. In addition, no changes have been made to the coin to prevent such an attack in the future, and none are planned. No hard forks will happen to improve this coin, ever...that's because Ethereum Classic's main value proposition is immutable and irreversible transactions, Ironic - because the 51% attack showed that transactions on this chain are actually the exact opposite of this. Obviously, this coin should be avoided. And before you ask, why did I leave out... -Cardano: Interesting project but too far away from releasing their smart contracts to mention in this post. In addition, market cap is extremely high for not having a working product out yet -Tron: A hyped-version of Ethereum with few differences. Not necessarily bad, but not innovative enough to mention from a technological standpoint. I won't comment on their marketing tactics... -Vechain: It remains to be seen whether this use-case will ever play out using a public blockchain like this with real businesses. Certainly one to keep an eye on, but as of right now it's not being used on any sort of large scale -Qtum: Still has yet to find a real niche over projects like Ethereum, Tron, and EOS -EOS: Raised billions of dollars in their ICO but their platform still has many issues. There are some decent developments like Everipedia on it, but overall I decided to leave it out due to once again, not offering anything THAT innovative to the space, and the lack of decentralization (EOS team can freeze transactions) I'll update the top list as well if anyone provides me with good projects that I may have missed out on here!
Andrew: Nice to meet you guys here,it's my honor to stand here speach for Filenet.Filenet(FN) is the world's first public chain of distributed storage application who has lauchned the mainet, and is also the world's first public chain of distributed storage application using DPOS + POC consensus mechanism.Filenet is dedicated to storing and distributing valuable content, rewarding miners in the form of mining to contribute idle bandwidth and storage. The mission of Filenet is to establish a powerful distributed data service system by connecting all idle storage to form, so any storage device that can connect to the Internet can participate in mining. Generally, Filenet is a super cloud system based on distributed storage and content sharing.
Questions from community:
Molly: Q1.What are the benefits of the FN project for business? What is the main role FN plays in business for five validation and security? Andrew: As we said just now,Filenet(FN) is the world's first public chain of distributed storage. Filenet is dedicated to storing and distributing valuable content. The system provides a file promotion system. The more data is retrieved, the more popular it becomes, and the file can be mined.The DAO mechanism adopted by Filenet, in the system of Filenet, users need not pay for uploading and downloading, which greatly reduces the cost of enterprise server and bandwidth.Besides that Filenet is used to retrieve and distribute mining patterns, pledge a certain amount of deposit and provide a certain amount of storage space to participate in mining. The higher the miner's contribution, the higher the probability of a block. Filenet is a leader in the field of distributed storage because of its unique consensus mechanism, business model, economic model, ecological strategy and governance structure, enabling blockchain storage to break out of the shackles and develop into a new format, and providing a key role for the development of other blockchain storage systems. On the level of consensus, Filenet adopts the DPOS+POC mechanism as the consensus mechanism for distribution in the context of POC storage and mining, avoiding the direct contradiction between equipment efficiency and resource allocation, and greatly improving the mining mode in the blockchain 3.0 era. The specific operation process of DPOS algorithm is that stakeholders, namely the Token holders and miners, vote to select Filenet Super Nodes through the election program, and then the Super Nodes in the block will be randomly pseudorandomly, and the Filenet Super Nodes can choose whether to produce blocks within a specified time. As for smart contracts, Filenet is a common chain for developers that provides special programming primitives for DApp to interact with stored data. These primitives are contained within the EVM (ethereum intelligent contract virtual machine). Thus, information about the location of data, storage nodes, and miners can also be accessed in smart contracts. The world's first distributed storage DApp "Ztiao" developed based on Filenet network is now on the market. All chat data in this application will be stored in a fragmented form at any node in the world, transferred by private key, and the ecology in the application will be circulated and settled with Fn as payment token. Filenet's smart contracts apply primarily to miners' coin holdings.The smart contracts we have developed may be rapidly realized through EVM (ethereum smart contract virtual machine) and solsea. Filenet itself has the potential to implement an intelligent contract mechanism, and we believe that future versions of EVM and WASM will naturally integrate with the capabilities of Filenet and allow other main chains to benefit from Filenet. In terms of data structure, the Filenet block saves all data trace parameters, and the data uploaded to Filenet is of various types and large quantities. While traditional linked list structures make blocks redundant and complex to express, Filenet USES a block chain data structure with Merkle tree and DAG (directed acyclic graph) structure. The DAG structure is more flexible, more powerful, and faster than the traditional blockchain chain structure, greatly improving the efficiency of block packaging, thereby improving the performance of the Filenet network. The Merkle tree does not require complete block information, but only the key Merkle node information to verify the block chain number filenet. IO page 10, a total of 24 data, which makes the node lighter and more energy and resources are devoted to business processing and providing services for the filenet network. At the same time, Merkle tree can also simplify the verification process and further improve network performance. Molly: Q2.Why does Filenet use the DPOS + POC consensus mechanism? What is the advantage? Andrew: As we all know,the core element of blockchain technology is the consensus mechanism. Currently, the most commonly used mechanisms include PoW (Proof-of-Work), PoS (Proof-of-Stake), DPoS (Delegated-Proof-of Stake), and PoC (Proof-of-Contribution). Proof of Work requires miners to solve complex cryptographic math problems and relies on computing power. The advantage of the system is that it is secure and reliable. Disadvantages are its limited capacity and the possibility of “51% attacks”. The Proof of Stake consensus mechanism selects miners according to how many coins he or she has. An immediate advantage is its low resource consumption. However, it opens itself to a range of attacks, such as nothing-at-stake, and also results in centralization since wealth brings more rewards and more decision-making power. In DPoS, the majority of people holding voting rights authorize a small number of nodes to act for them. The system’s merits are its high efficiency, throughput capacity and concurrency. However, the power is then concentrated in the hands of a few nodes, which is not safe. Proof of Contribution allocates mining and validating rights according to the contributions made by the nodes. The advantage of this system is that it does not waste resources thanks to its concept of selection based on resources provided to network. A disadvantage is that the calculation of contributions depends on specific scenarios. In the era of Blockchain 3.0, the consensus mechanisms are to advance under the principles of economy of resources, security focus and scalability, throughput capacity and concurrency. https://preview.redd.it/krjv4rm9may41.png?width=1066&format=png&auto=webp&s=40875d9f7c76c5259faba1ad09f2396447231fa5 Molly: Q3.What is the main reason behind the formation of FN? Why do you think coins like FN should be in the Marketplace? Andrew: As I just said,Filenet is an IPFS incentive layer to reward miners for sharing their storage and networking resources. Filenet is also a token which powers a distributed certification mechanism. It creates a cloud-level system for content-sharing dedicated to storing and distributing valuable content on IPFS,demand leaders to results. Filenet solve the problem of data distribution and storage.Why coins like FN should be in the marketplace? This is easy to understand,why bitcoin should be in the market?All coins can be in the market for just one reason-the consensus.If there just one person who think FN is valueble,we cannot say this is consesus,but if there is 10000,or 1 billion who make consesus,then you can say,FN should be in the market.Fn happens to have so many users make the consesus.The number of people in Filenet community has reached 210000+,the autonomy community is up to 21,the global super nodes is over 51+,Our community is still growing,our consensus is also deepening,because we all believe in the future of FN.In short term,in the mining mode, on the one hand: the tokens will be locked, and the decrease in circulation can increase the value of the token; on the other hand: mining can also generate income. On the long term,Filenet can provide commercial applications with commercial value. Giant Internet companies such as Tencent WeSee and Byte Dance with giant data amount will have requirements for massive storage. Filenet can provide distributed storage services to solve the problem. Companies need to pay and lock FN for the distributed storage services. In this way, the circulation of FN on the market can be controlled, and thereby the value can be appreciated. Molly: Q4.Can ordinary users also participate in mining? If can participate, how much mining can ordinary user do? And please explain the role of FN Coin easily. Andrew: Ordinary people can also participate in mining,as long as you pledge 400FN,and provide 4T storage space,you can join to mining.And the specific details depend on the mining pool you joined,you can see these pictures for a detailed mining tutorial. https://preview.redd.it/z9hr1knkmay41.png?width=864&format=png&auto=webp&s=61abf14e3e659430f8387915389e024a1523ad2e https://preview.redd.it/g8r2hmgmmay41.png?width=864&format=png&auto=webp&s=d82d323958a9ff11761b7c165be0179d7aeb91d9 Molly: Q5.What's the future plan of Filenet? Andrew: In the 1.0 stage, Filenet is the first distributed storage application public chain on the mainnet, the first distributed storage application public chain on the exchange, and the first distributed storage application public chain using the DPOS + POC consensus mechanism. Filenet 2.0 comprehensively solves the key shortcomings of centralized data service centers. In Filenet3.0 stage, the vision can catch up with and surpass many leading projects and brands of the decentralized distributed storage track, such as Filecoin, IBM, Amazon, Maidsafe, and become the leader of the track.
Q1.What is the difficulty bomb solution? Can you tell us more about [email protected] Andrew: https://preview.redd.it/zghna15smay41.png?width=905&format=png&auto=webp&s=2f01912ecb429f6e543d0b74322f4c295b901015 difficulty bomb is a solution to to encourage the nodes of the entire network to contribute more storage space and bandwidth, the Filenet Foundation plans to implement the difficulty bomb program in stages from May 1, 2020. Q2.Checking the website, I found that the transaction fees of FN coins are very low, and the transaction speed is also very high! Can you explain how the FILENET project can achieve such a high transaction rate at the lowest [email protected] Andrew: As I said just now,there are lots of ways to generate revennue,in short term Filenet can provide commercial applications with commercial value. Giant Internet companies such as Tencent WeSee and Byte Dance with giant data amount will have requirements for massive storage. Filenet can provide distributed storage services to solve the problem. Companies need to pay and lock FN for the distributed storage services. In this way, the circulation of FN on the market can be controlled, and thereby the value can be appreciated.And in long term Filenet is aim to encourage the nodes of the entire network to contribute more storage space and bandwidth, the Filenet Foundation plans to implement the difficulty bomb program in stages from May 1, 2020. Q3.According to packaging node program, theywill recruit 105 packaging nodes worldwide. If 105 packaging nodes have been allocated, can I still participate in the activities of this packaging [email protected] Andrew: yes,of course,our paging nodes have proceed to the fifth issue,you can join us. Q4.Why do people have to buy FN or hold it back? What is the FILENET team's plan to keep competing in the [email protected] Andrew: You could also refer to the eco mode and the apppreciation logic I've jsut share. Q5.what are the benefits of $FN Long Term [email protected] Andrew: As we just shared: For long term, Filenet can provide commercial applications with commercial value. Giant Internet companies such as Tencent WeSee and Byte Dance with giant data amount will have requirements for massive storage. Filenet can provide distributed storage services to solve the problem. Companies need to pay and lock FN for the distributed storage services. In this way, the circulation of FN on the market can be controlled, and thereby the value can be appreciated. Follow us: Telegram: https://t.me/MXCEnglish MXC trading: https://t.me/MXCtrade Twitter: https://twitter.com/MXC_Exchange https://twitter.com/MXC_Fans Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/MXCexchange/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mxcexchangeofficial/ Discord: https://discord.gg/zu5drS8
In depth interview with Mr. Feng: MW is not only the commercial incentive layer of IPFS
Why did early bitcoin players play MW?Why is blockchain + distributed storage the only industry that can combine mining with practice?How can human beings do things beneficial to social storage while consuming a lot of resources?Special guest Mr. Feng: early believers in bitcoin, co-founder ofMirror World Network MW, to solve our doubts one by one! Hello, I'm Mr.Feng. I started my business in 2012.I'm an early believer in bitcoin. After two years of silence, I returned to the industry with the help of a group of friends.During this period, a lot of research has been done on distributed storage, including IPFS. So this project is also about the field of distributed storage. I think blockchain + distributed storage is the only industry that can combine mining with practice. While human beings consume a lot of resources, it can also be a commercial storage network beneficial to society. MW is a mature landing project that applies IPFS technology to actual storage, and creates a feasible solution for the landing of blockchain industry. 1. I believe that after your self introduction, many audience friends are concerned about what mirror network is doing recently. Can you share it with audience friends?What achievements have mirror network made in these years? MW is building an easy-to-use and available distributed storage network, which creates a new computing paradigm and collaboration mode of low-cost trust building in an untrusted competitive environment.We have three years of technical precipitation and have drawn on the experience of IPFS, Alibaba cloud OSS, stoij and other technologies at home and abroad. At present, the code base is close to 900000 lines, and it will also be open-source in the future. Before that, we have run a relatively stable internal test network, and many friends have participated in it.In the next three to four months, we will release our technical achievements, including practical cases, and leave a message for you. 2.What the difference between MW and filecoin?What is the core competitiveness of MW? I believe you have known IPFS for a long time. Filecoin is the incentive layer of IPFS. To put it simply, it is the financing tool of IPFS. It was dazzling at that time.At the same time, storj and SIA did well.We also chose this way at that time. The original intention of MW is to do real distributed storage. I think MW different from filecoin in terms of starting point. The core competitiveness of MW is technology inclusiveness. We integrate decentralized storage protocol and centralized storage protocol to solve the game between decentralized storage protocol, regulatory layer and practicability. 3.Now, MW public chain has been able to apply IPFS technology to actual storage very mature, and it is the only one.what kind of difficulties did MW encounter and how did you solve them? In January, we asked for opinions on a small scale in the industry. At that time, we fully demonstrated the storage function and blockchain information, which was unanimously recognized by everyone.Because the team is mainly technical members, the economic model should be the biggest difficulty. After extensive collection of opinions, we adjusted it no less than ten times. Finally, we chose the open and inclusive community governance scheme. There is no model, fair competition, and community motivation is our goal. 4.MW will open the test network on April 18,How should interested users participate in the test?Is there a reward for the test? Yes, the public beta will be officially launched on April 18, 2020. It will be divided into three stages: pioneer, union and world. You can go to mw.run see the road map , there is a threshold at the earliest stage of the pioneer stage. We need to manually authenticate the added equipment to ensure the stability and robustness of the initial stage of the network, but there will be no block reward, only contribution reward provided by the foundation.After the network is stable, we will open up the block reward and enter the computing power contest period. There will be rewards in the whole public beta stage. You only need to send an email to: [email protected] to apply for joining. 5.Distributed storage mining has always been a concern of miners. What should be paid attention to when mining in MW test network?What are the requirements for mining machines?What factors will affect the mining revenue? I like to share with you the consensus mechanism of MW. In order to make more storage devices join the MW ecosystem more fairly, and further increase the number of stable nodes in the network to improve the network dispersion, MW adopts DPoS consensus and POC consensus based on weight table.How to understand this? In fact, MW is a very inclusive project. Simply speaking, it is as simple as bitcoin mining through the competition for computing power!We have a set of strict weight calculation and distribution mechanism, which is equivalent to the law of the whole network. It will be announced in genesis block. At present, the size of storage space has the most direct impact on the income. In addition, we have a unique mining pool system, where everyone can establish a mining pool and participate in mining dividends together without having equipment.We don't have too many requirements for mining machines. At present, we only have requirements for network environment, and we need public IP. 6.In your opinion, what is the real "visual" IPFS storage system?HowMW achieve "availability" and "ease of use" when building a distributed file storage network? "Visualization" is actually very easy to understand, that is, it can be seen and felt.Now we have developed a complete visual storage path, and MW is a typical representative of visual storage.Here I highly recommend our internal measurement network that you experience. Like using a network disk, your files can be segmented, hashed and encrypted after uploading. Finally, they can be completely recovered and downloaded. We also made a short tutorial, which can be watched and understood by interested friends.In addition, our goal is to make the IPFS distributed storage system available to all ordinary people, rather than setting too high a threshold, which represents ease of use and availability. If you want to participate in the internal test, you can contact us before April 18 to register. We will also provide 1000 coins for free.After the test network was officially launched on April 18, all data of the internal test will be reset. 7. IPFS commercial incentive layer, but also what value can MW provide us?What is the ultimate vision of the MW? MW network can do the following: a.establish an open distributed blockchain storage network, form a multi chain ecology with existing networks and public chains, and complete data and value transmission. b.set up a component distributed storage network with idle storage resources in the enterprise and individuals, and deploy various public chains, storage networks and individual nodes. c.build a global distributed cloud storage compatible with IPFS, public cloud storage and private cloud storage. Secondly, we need to talk about our collective chain architecture. In the public chain part, MW is an open blockchain + distributed storage system, which mainly provides benefits for the miners and maintains the stability of the network. We will also make an alliance chain in China. MW will become an application network of small distributed data center, providing users with low cost, security and high private storage services can also be used to supervise and audit enterprises and governments in some specific fields or scenarios. Finally, we can provide data backup, verification and query services for other public chain (open source chain) data.MW is an underlying system focusing on distributed storage. 8.Security has always been a key concern of people. In terms of data security, how does the mirror network ensure data security? Data loss and privacy are the focus of data storage. I'm sure you have heard a lot of news, including customer information disclosure, downtime, server crash, selling customer privacy and so on. In fact, this is some of the problems that central storage will face. With the continuous growth of data and the improvement of people requirements for data security, the data storage mode is also generating iterations, and IPFS protocol is a very good solution to the privacy processing,On the basis of IPFS, MW also uses technologies such as file segmentation, multi backup, encryption, multi role, data correction and deletion to ensure the data security of users.One of the simplest understandings is that we will always copy three file fragments automatically in the network node to ensure the data security. 9.With the advent of 5g cloud computing era, people have new requirements for bandwidth and traffic. How is the layout of MW?How will distributed storage develop in the future? We are full of expectations for 5g era, which is one of the reasons why we have only launched MW until now. The small distributed storage computing center close to users is more suitable for the needs of the future era. We will set up a demonstration data center in the public test network, and conduct commercial demonstration for the storage space provided by enterprises. At the end of last year, I read a research report jointly issued. By 2023, the data storage volume will be twice that of 2019. At present, the industry is in a high-speed development stage, in which distributed storage will enter the mainstream storage market. We have planned a three-year development path, starting with cold data, such as archived data, infrequently called data, etc., public chain miner Hosting as a data center is the business model of our alliance chain. Compared with the traditional data center or cloud, we have a natural price advantage. We can even achieve 10% of the price of Tencent cloud and Alibaba cloud equivalent products. When 5g / 6G is mature, we will enter the mainstream storage market. In the future, we also hope that global storage, open-source public chains, and enterprises and individuals with storage resources can join Mirror World Network to provide a solid infrastructure for future storage methods, and obtain appropriate rewards.
A few days ago I posted my doubts and criticism about BTC vs BCH, but now I have made my mind up after a lenghty research yesterday and today, I have chosen BCH. Disclaimer: I have already owned BCH before that. So I was already on board BCH, but I had my doubts about it, and certainly the noise the other side makes, it made me doubt myself whether I made the best choice or not. After all it's about money, and the first thing that comes into a person's mind is that it worries about losing it. So if BCH would have been inferior to BTC then there would have been a strong chance of losing that money, through the price doing down like with the other fake coins Bitcoin Gold, Bitcoin Diamond, etc... Because from an investment standpoint I shouldn't care about sides, I just want the one that has a better future and more potential in it. So if I would have found out that BTC is better I would have sold my BCH for BTC obviously, I would have no sentimental attachment to either of them, I just want to be on the right side. Eventually hedge, but hedging is like the game of uncertain people, and there is no uncertainty here, all the evidence shows one side to be much better than the other. It's not even like 70-30, it's more like 99-1. Now I did a lenghty research, read all the comments on my posts, and compared them to the claim BTC makes on their websites and influential BTC people have stated, asked questions, used logic, and it's now objectively clear to me that BCH is the right side to be on.
I was already doubtful about BTC, that is why I have switched to BCH about a year ago, I saw their shady activities, but the final nail in the coffin was probably the massive FEE problem, that started last November and ended in February. That made me totally dislike BTC. However now that the fees are normal in BTC, I had a doubt in my mind that what if they are right? What if the fee spike was just a coordinated attack on BTC, and now that it's over, BTC is just as good as BCH. I mean if the fees are normal now, and about the same last I looked (maybe BTC is like 20% more expensive but still low like 60 cents), it gives some credibility back to BTC. There are theories that the coordinated attack was a conspiracy against BTC, but then again BTC has it's own conspiracies too, so why not just ignore the conspiracy theories and look at the facts. The fact is that it doesn't matter what it was, the mere fact that it happened, and it crippled the network for 4 months, shows that BTC has serious flaws. And it can happen again. So it doesn't matter who did it, it happened, and the network was crippled. Now if a network can be crippled like that, and if you want this network to host a global payment system, then we will have huge problems. BCH can defend against such attack much more effectively because it costs more to fill up a 32MB block than a 1MB block, 32x harder. Plus a 32MB block is so small that anyone can handle that right now, even if a 4 month period attack would happen against BCH, and it would be 32x more costly, so it would be harder to pull off. However if a bigger budgeted attacker would attack again BTC with a 32x budget, then it would cripple BTC for 10 YEARS!!! That would literally make Bitcoin literally die.
Non Mining Nodes
One aspect that the BTC people say is that non miner "full nodes" are sacrosanct, and that we need them to keep miners in check, but I haven't heard any coherent answers as to why. I have read the whitepaper twice, once today and once yesterday, and it states there clearly what the real truth is. You should definitely download and archive the whitepaper because some people tried to rewrite it, Orwellian style, so grab the original one here: https://blockchair.com/bitcoin/whitepaper [Download it and save it on your own computer SHA256: b1674191a88ec5cdd733e4240a81803105dc412d6c6708d53ab94fc248f4f553, these Orwellian trolls might try to gaslight you eventually and rewrite the past!] The whitepaper mentions 3 times that:
The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes.
The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. If a majority of CPU power is controlled by honest nodes, the honest chain will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains.
This is word for word how the whitepaper says it. So this alone disproves the full node myth, it's complete nonsense. The miners have total control, and the nodes don't matter. Satoshi designed a 1 CPU 1 vote system, where every node is a miner node. He could not forecast large farm ASIC miners, but then again that isn't resolved by just running non miner nodes. Furthermore the full node system doesn't have any collective benefit only individual one, which we will get into next, and it might even be a drag: Instead of going from A->D, you have to go to A->B->C->D with a full node system, adding extra inefficiency and latency. Keep in mind, this is not a medieval pidgeon relay messaging system, the information travels at the speed of light, so there is no need for extra relays, in fact adding extra relays just creates extra latency. You eventually have to communicate with a miner, so what is the point in having extra "bus stops" along the way? It's just a waste of resources. We do need many miners to secure the network, and instead of wasting resources on non-mining nodes, they should just spend that on mining if they really want decentralization.
Another claim that they make is that SPV wallets are insecure. Which is somewhat true, but out of perspective. For general users SPV wallets are totally fine. And I don't think SPV security is lower than what anyone except a billionaire who keeps all his coins in 1 address (very stupid) would need. This explained well in the whitepaper in the page 5/ paragraph 8 "Simplified Payment Verification" section. The SPV is probabilistically secure, because it fetches blocks that are already agreed upon, so unless a big conspiracy is taking place, miners rewriting the chain, this gives people a probabilistic security. Most SPV wallets are well implemented so they use the best tools to keep your coin history reasonably accurate, so they fetch data from multiple random servers and compare against it. Certainly Electrum/Electron Cash does this well. One thing I might add is that it's good to use a VPN too with SPV wallets, in case your are personally targeted by a criminal, so your IP address is randomized too for extra security, so you won't download honeypot blocks that are specifically targeting your IP. But other than that SPV is just reasonably secure, and by that I mean that it's probably below 0.1% that your coin history can be deceitful, and even then if you wait for 10-15 confirmations and shuffle your VPN IP address around enough times, you can be absolutely sure that the history is accurate. So their fear is overblown and they are just fearmongering on this, the same way people fearmonger about asteroid impact or alien invasion, it's just not reasonable.
Now as you can see already that a lot of these claims have been utterly debunked, and they don't have coherent arguments to address the rebuttals, in fact in most cases they resort to ad hominems and insults (which I have experienced, just for asking questions). But the coup de grace happens when you realize how inefficient LN is. And for that here are some references, it's mostly technical:
And perhaps it's explained in more simpler terms in youtube videos but the point is that there is real scientific proof that the LN will have awful consequences for the decentralization of BTC, and it inserts and unnecessary middleman into the mix that is a massive point of failure. It essentially creates a KYC regulated bank network on top of a settlement layer, and the governments around the world will have total control over that. Well the LN nodes are essentially money transmitters because they directly facilitate the transfer of money, so AML/KYC/Tax reporting/Surveillance will happen by default on these nodes. And given that LN can't be a decentralized system but a hub & spoke system, due to the need to keep your wallet online at all times, it will literally become a 3rd party custodian based banking system, literally. So all of the essence of Bitcoin [word for word quote from the whitepaper]:
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution.
Will literally cease to exist, and it reverts BTC back into a government regulated banking system, literally.
There are other arguments too, but these are the main ones, and researching them thoroughly and understanding the issues made me lose all my doubts about Bitcoin Cash and all my faith in Bitcoin. It can't be any more clear to me now that Bitcoin Cash is the true version of Bitcoin, the real vision of Satoshi and the genuine implementation of it, with all the technical genius-ity that Satoshi had laid out in the whitepaper which is still relevant. Satoshi laid out everything in the whitepaper, and all of it is implemented geniusly in Bitcoin Cash except for paragraph 7 on page 4 "Reclaiming Disk Space" which talks about block pruning, I am not sure if this is Xthin Blocks or Compact Blocks or Thin Blocks (please explain in the comment section), otherwise it should be implemented, it would be a much better way for scaling than LN. But other than that BCH is technically superior. Now I don't know whether better things win in politics, but in engineering, if your design is shitty, it will inevitably fall apart. You can't have a skyscraper built on quicksand, it's inevitable disaster. So look, BCH is obviously risky, it has less users, less merchants; but because it has a solid foundation and probably the 3rd biggest community after ethereum, it has maaaaaaaaaaaaassive opportunity in it to become the best cryptocurrency (because ethereum has the same or worse issues than BTC). There is no question now whether BCH is better, the only question now is, how long will it take for people to realize this.
So I choose to stay with BCH, and now I am 101% supportive of it! Long Live Bitcoin Cash!!
– Run the Bitcoin software to import most of the blockchain locally and then to download only the rest and synchronize the client. This will get you up to speed and running in no time and much faster than running the Bitcoin client and waiting for it to download and synchronize the complete blockchain from the start to the most recent blocks. <<< Newer Post. Older Post >>> Publihsed in ... To download the blockchain with maximal speed you want to be connected to nodes with high bandwidth. On default bitcoin will search and connect to random nodes. One can add nodes to bitcoin conf to tell bitcoin to connect to specific nodes. Download the latest bootstrap.dat file to speed up the initialization process. Instead of loading and verifying each block from the peer-to-peer network, your Bitcoin client can load all this information from a single bootstrap.dat file. I've always wondered why there are no easy ways to "import" the blockchain from a trusted source, and then download and verify from that point. For example, to load the blockchain from my workstation to my laptop. I'm sure it's possible, but every time I've tried, I've ended up annoyed. Download Bitcoin Core Latest version: 0.20.1 Download Bitcoin Core Bitcoin Core 0.20.1. Check your bandwidth and space. Bitcoin Core initial synchronization will take time and download a lot of data. You should make sure that you have enough bandwidth and storage for the full block chain size (over 350GB). If you have a good Internet connection, you can help strengthen the network by keeping ...
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